Characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human preprogalanin gene
Expression of the human galanin gene was analysed using a 3.5-kb DNA fragment comprising the 5'-flanking sequence of the gene. This sequence contains a TATA box (ATATATA) preceded by numerous potential binding sites for transcription factors such as SP1, AP2, and NF kappa B. Three half-palindromic estrogen response elements (EREs, GGTCA) are also found at positions -1,162, -361, and -122 bp relative to the transcription start site. To localize functionally important portions of the promoter region, several shorter fragments of the galanin 5'-flanking region were placed upstream from the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. In transient transfection assays, all constructs demonstrated substantial transcriptional activity in both rat glioma/mouse neuroblastoma hybrid cells (NG108-15) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Comparison of the basal expression levels of the different constructs suggests the presence of a negative modulator between positions -1,891 and -207. When cotransfected into NG108-15 cells with the human estrogen receptor cDNA, estrogen did not induce transcription of the human galanin gene at physiological levels of estrogen receptor, although transcription was induced up to 30-fold in the presence of high levels of receptor.
|Authors||Kofler, B.;Evans, H. F.;Liu, M. L.;Falls, V.;Iismaa, T. P.;Shine, J.;Herzog, H. :|
|Publisher Name||DNA AND CELL BIOLOGY|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7536007|